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Literature on VSEL™ Technology

The properties and potential of VSELs has been validated through a variety of peer-reviewed publications, a selection of which is listed here in chronological order. Article titles link to either the articles or the article abstracts. Human VSELs have been shown to increase in the circulation of blood following stroke, myocardial infarction, Crohn’s disease and burns. In both the acute myocardial and stroke studies, the clinical outcome of patients correlated directly with the increase in circulating VSELs.

Links to Full Articles (arranged chronologically)
Rodgerson DO, and Harris AG. A comparison of stem cells for therapeutic use. Stem Cell Rev and Rep. 7:782-796, 2011
Rodgerson DO, and Ratajczak MZ. Where do stem cells come from? Culture e Fede (Cultures and Faith), Pontifical Council for Culture, Vatican City. Vol 20, pp8-9, 2012.
Havens AM, Shiozawa Y, Jung Y, et al. Human Very Small Embryonic-Like (VSEL) Cell Generate Skeletal Structures, In Vivo.  Stem Cell & Dev. 2012;Online ahead of print (DOI: 10.1089/scd.2012.0327)
Links to Abstracts
VSEL Characterization and Origin
Kucia M, Reca R, Jala VR, et al. Bone marrow as a home of heterogeneous populations of nonhematopoietic stem cells. Leukemia. 2005;19:1118–1127.
Kucia M, Reca R, Campbell FR, et al. A population of very small embryonic-like (VSEL)CXCR4(+)SSEA-1(+)Oct-4+stem cells identified in adult bone marrow. Leukemia 2006;20:857–869.
Kucia M, Wu W, Ratacjzak MZ. Bone marrow-derived very small embryonic-like stem cells: their developmental origin and biological significance. Develop Dynamics 2007;236:3309–3320.
Ratajczak MZ, Zuba-Surma EK, Wysoczynski M. Very small embryonic-like stem cells: Characterization, developmental origin, and biological significance. Exp. Hemat. 2008;36:742–751.
Kucia M, Wysoczynski M, Ratajczak J, et al. Identification of very small embryonic like (VSEL) stem cells in bone marrow. Cell Tissue Res 2008;331:125–134.
Ratajczak MZ, Machalinski B, Wojakowski W, Ratajczak J, Kucia M. A hypothesis for an embryonic origin of pluripotent Oct-4+ stem cells in adult bone marrow and other tissues. Leukemia.2007;21:860–867.
Shin D-M, Liu R, Klich I, et al. Molecular signature of adult bone marrow-purified very small embryonic-like stem cells supports their developmental epiblast/germ line origin. Leukemia 2009;23:2042-2051.
Sovalat, S., Scrofani, M., Eidenschenk, A., Pasquet, S., Rimelen, V., and Hénon, P. Identification and isolation from either adult human bone marrow or G-CSF−mobilized peripheral blood of CD34+/CD133+/CXCR4+/ Lin−CD45− cells, featuring morphological, molecular, and phenotypic characteristics of very small embryonic-like (VSEL) stem cells. Experimental Hematology. 2011;39:495-505.
Shin D-M, Liu R, Wu W, et al. Global gene expression analysis of very small embryonic-like stem cells reveals that the ezh2-dependent bivalent domain mechanism contributes to their pluripotent state. Stem Cells & Devel. 2012;21:1639-1652.
VSEL Mobilization After Stroke
Kucia M, Zhang YP, Reca R, et al. Cells enriched in markers of neural tissue-committed stem cells reside in the bone marrow and are mobilized into peripheral blood following stroke.  Leukemia. 2006;20:18 –28.
Paczkowska E, Kucia M, Koziarska D, Halasa M, et al. Clinical Evidence That Very Small Embryonic-Like Stem Cells Are Mobilized Into Peripheral Blood in Patients After Stroke. Stroke. 2009;40:1237-1244.
VSEL Mobilization After Acute Myocardial Infarction
Wojakowski W, Kucia M, Wyderka R, et al. Mobilization of CXCR4+ stem cells in acute myocardial infarction is correlated with left ventricular ejection fraction and myocardial perfusion assessed by MRI in 1 year follow-up (REGENT trial). Circulation 2006;114:116.
Zuba-Surma EK, Kucia M, Dawn B, Guob Y, Ratajczak MZ, Bolli R. Bone marrow-derived pluripotent very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) are mobilized after acute myocardial infarction. J. Mol. Cell Cardiol. 2008;44: 865-873.
Wojakowski W, Tendera T, Kucia M, et al. Mobilization of Bone Marrow-Derived Oct-4+ SSEA-4+ Very Small Embryonic-Like Stem Cells in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2009;53:1-9.
VSEL Mobilization in Crohn’s Disease
Marlicz W, Zuba-Surma E, Kucia M, et al. Various types of stem cells, including a population of very small embryonic-like stem cells, are mobilized into peripheral blood in patients with Crohn’s disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2012;18:1711-1722.
Human VSEL Mobilization by G-CSF
Medicetty S, Ratajczak, MZ, Kucia MJ, et al. Evidence that human very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) are mobilized by G-CSF into peripheral blood: a novel strategy to obtain human pluripotent stem cells for regenerative medicine. Proceedings of the American Society for Hematology, 51st Annual Meeting, New Orleans, LA. December 2009. Abstract 1474.
Medicetty, S., Jiang, Y., Ratajczak, M.Z., Kucia, M.J., Zuba-Surma, E.K., Klich, I., E. Leary, Marasco, W.A., and Rodgerson, D.O. Mobilization and isolation of human Very Small Embryonic-Like Stem Cells (VSELs) from peripheral blood. ISSCR 8th Annual Meeting, June 16-19, 2010 San Francisco, CA.
VSELs and Aging
Zuba-Surma EK, Wu W, Ratajczak J, Kucia M, Ratajczak MZ. Very small embryonic-like stem cells in adult tissues—Potential implications for aging. Mech. Ageing Dev. 2009;130:58-66.
VSEL Derivation from Umbilical Cord Blood
Ratajczak J, Zuba-Surma E, Klich I, et al. Hematopoietic differentiation of umbilical cord-blood derived very small embryonic/epiblast-like stem cells. Leukemia 2011;25:1278-1285.
VSEL Mobilization After Skin Burn Injury
Drukala J, Paczkowska E, Kucia M, et al. Stem cells, including a population of very small embryonic-like stem cells, are mobilized into peripheral blood in patients after skin burn injury. Stem Cell Rev and Rep. 2012;8:184-194.
VSEL Potential for Acute Radiation Sickness
Rodgerson DO, Reidenberg BE, Harris AG, Pecora AL. The potential for a pluripotent adult stem cell treatment for acute radiation sickness. World J Exp. Med. 2: 37-44, 2012.
VSEL Lung Cell Differentiation
Kassmer SH, Jin H, Zhang PX, Bruscia EM, Heydari K, Lee JH, Kim CF, Krause DS. Very Small Embryonic-Like Stem Cells from the Murine Bone Marrow Differentiate into Epithelial Cells of the Lung. Stem Cells. 2013 May 16. doi: 10.1002/stem.1413. [Epub ahead of print]

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